Friday, November 7, 2008

01) 3ds max Basic Introduction


3Ds Max


The original 3D Studio product was created for the DOS platform by the Yost Group and published by Autodesk. After 3D Studio Release 4, the product was rewritten for the Windows NT platform, and originally named "3D Studio MAX." This version was also originally created by the Yost Group. It was released by Kinetix, which was at that time Autodesk's division of media and entertainment. Autodesk purchased the product at the second release mark of the 3D Studio MAX version and internalized development entirely over the next two releases. Later, the product name was changed to "3ds max" (all lower case) to better comply with the naming conventions of Discreet, a Montreal-based software company which Autodesk had purchased. At release 8, the product was again branded with the Autodesk logo, and the name was again changed to "3ds Max" (upper and lower case). At release 2009, product name changed to "Autodesk 3ds Max".

3ds max living room render rendered with V-Ray

Modeling

Polygon modeling :

Polygon modeling is more common with game design than any other modeling technique as the very specific control over individual polygons allows for extreme optimization. Usually, the modeller begins with one of the 3ds max primitives, and using such tools as bevel and extrude, adds detail to and refines the model. Versions 4 and up feature the Editable Polygon object, which simplifies most mesh editing operations, and provides subdivision smoothing at customizable levels.

Version 7 introduced the edit poly modifier, which allows the use of the tools available in the editable polygon object to be used higher in the modifier stack


NURBS (Nonuniform rational B-Spline) modeling :

A more advanced alternative to polygons, it gives a smoothed out surface that eliminates the straight edges of a polygon model. NURBS is a mathematically exact representation of freeform surfaces like those used for car bodies and ship hulls, which can be exactly reproduced at any resolution whenever needed. With NURBS, a smooth sphere can be created with only one face.
The non-uniform property of NURBS brings up an important point. Because they are generated mathematically, NURBS objects have a parameter space in addition to the 3D geometric space in which they are displayed. Specifically, an array of values called knots specifies the extent of influence of each control vertex (CV) on the curve or surface. Knots are invisible in 3D space and you can't manipulate them directly, but occasionally their behavior affects the visible appearance of the NURBS object. This topic mentions those situations. Parameter space is one-dimensional for curves, which have only a single U dimension topologically, even though they exist geometrically in 3D space. Surfaces have two dimensions in parameter space, called U and V.

NURBS curves and surfaces have the important properties of not changing under the standard geometric affine transformations (Transforms), or under perspective projections. The CVs have local control of the object: moving a CV or changing its weight does not affect any part of the object beyond the neighboring CVs. (You can override this property by using the Soft Selection controls.) Also, the control lattice that connects CVs surrounds the surface. This is known as the convex hull property.


Predefined Standard Primitives list
  • Box box produces a rectangular prism. An alternative variation of box is available—entitled cube which proportionally constrains the length, width and height of the box.
  • Cylinder cylinder produces a cylinder.
  • Torus torus produces a torus or a ring with a circular cross section, sometimes referred to as a doughnut.
  • Teapot teapot produces the Utah teapot. Since the teapot is a parametric object, the user can choose which parts of the teapot to display after creation. These parts include the body, handle, spout and lid.
  • Cone cone produces round cones—either upright or inverted.
  • Sphere sphere produces a full sphere, hemisphere, or other portion of a sphere.
  • Tube tube can produce both round and prismatic tubes. The tube is similar to the cylinder with a hole in it.
  • Pyramid The pyramid primitive has a square or rectangular base and triangular sides.
  • Plane The plane object is a special type of flat polygon mesh that can be enlarged by any amount at render time. The user can specify factors to magnify the size or number of segments, or both. Modifiers such as displace can be added to a plane to simulate a hilly terrain.
  • Geosphere GeoSphere produces spheres and hemispheres based on three classes of regular polyhedrons.
Predefined Extended Primitives list

  • Hedra produces objects from several families of polyhedra.
  • ChamferBox creates a box with beveled or rounded edges.
  • OilTank creates a cylinder with convex caps.
  • Spindle creates a cylinder with conical caps.
  • Gengon creates an extruded, regular-sided polygon with optionally filleted side edges.
  • Prism Creates a three-sided prism with independently segmented sides.
  • Torus knot creates a complex or knotted torus by drawing 2D curves in the normal planes around a 3D curve. The 3D curve (called the Base Curve) can be either a circle or a torus knot. It can be converted from a torus knot object to a NURBS surface.
  • ChamferCyl creates a cylinder with beveled or rounded cap edges.
  • Capsule creates a cylinder with hemispherical caps.
  • L-Ext creates an extruded L-shaped object.
  • C-Ext creates an extruded C-shaped object.
  • Hose a flexible object, similar to a spring.



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